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outbreak could be linked to Smithfield factory farms
Posted 11:06 AM on 25 Apr 2009
by Tom Philpott
of a new flu strain—a nasty mash-up of swine, avian, and human
viruses—has infected 1,000 people in Mexico and the U.S.,
killing 68. The World Health Organization warned Saturday that the
outbreak could reach global pandemic levels.
[of Perote] believed the outbreak had been caused by contamination
from pig breeding farms located in the area. They believed that
the farms, operated by Granjas Carroll, polluted the atmosphere
and local water bodies, which in turn led to the disease outbreak.
According to residents, the company denied responsibility for the
outbreak and attributed the cases to “flu.” However,
a municipal health official stated that preliminary investigations
indicated that the disease vector was a type of fly that reproduces
in pig waste and that the outbreak was linked to the pig farms.
It was unclear whether health officials had identified a suspected
pathogen responsible for this outbreak.
Flies Likely To Spread Avian Influenza
(Although yet comfirmed
by U.S. studies, the threat of flies carrying the Bird Flu infection
is very real as flies are already responsible for transmitting at
least 65 other diseases to humans; see Fact #2 below)
Jakarta (VNA) - Indonesian
Health Minister Siti Fadilah Supari has warned people to stay alert
against avian influenza (AI) infection through rats and flies,
after research by the Gadjah Mada University showed that they could
become carriers of the deadly bird flu virus.
addition to killing flies and rats, people must also throw away
the excrement of pigs and chickens, because the two animals are
potential sources of the AI virus, which can be transmitted from
animal to animal and from animal to humans." Vietamese
News Agency http://www.vnagency.com.vn/NewsA.asp?LANGUAGE_ID=2&CATEGORY_ID=32&NEWS_ID=167720
will lay approximately five to six times during her lifetime (about
30 days) and may produce 1,000 eggs.
State University Extension Service CARES
flies are strongly suspected of transmitting at least 65 diseases
to humans, including typhoid fever, dysentery, cholera, poliomyelitis,
yaws, anthrax, tularemia, leprosy and tuberculosis."
Pennsylvania State College of Agricultural Science
State College of Agricultural Sciences: http://www.ento.psu.edu/extension/factsheets/houseflies.htm
cost nearly $1 Billion in annual
production losses to the U.S. dairy and beef industries."United
States Department of Agriculture
States Dept. of Agriculture: http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/AR/archive/nov03/flies1103.pdf
Common Fly Varieties :::::
life expectancy of a fly is 7 days to 8 weeks. There are 16,000 different
species of flies in North America alone; a few of the most common
flies are named here.
Source: U. S. Department Of Agriculture
Flies (Stomoxys calcitrans) attack animals’
(including dogs and cats) legs and bellies, and feed on blood several
times a day. They cause painful biting, animal fatigue, and weight
Source: U. S. Department Of Agriculture
Flies (Haematobia irritans) cause painful bites; each
fly punctures the cow’s skin 20 to 40 times a day. A population
of several thousand horn flies may be present on one animal. When
large numbers of these flies are on cattle, the cattle bunch and expend
considerable effort fighting the flies. They will often stand in water
or seek shade trying to get relief from the flies. When they do this,
they fail to graze normally. Studies in the United States and Canada
show that during the grazing season yearling cattle free from horn
flies gain from 15 to 50 pounds more than heavily infested animals.
Nebraska studies and others show a 10- to 15-pound advantage in calf
weaning weights where cows have had good horn fly control. Milk production
of dairy cattle pastured during the day may be decreased as much as
20 percent by horn flies Horn flies cause severe nervousness and interfere
with the animal’s feeding and resting, and can cause blood loss
and reduced weight gain. These flies are known to infect pets and
other animals. However, horn flies have the most impact on pasture
and range cattle.
U. S. Department Of Agriculture
Flies (Musca autumnalis) cause extreme annoyance to
cattle on pasture all summer. They feed on animal secretions such
as tears, saliva, nasal mucus, and blood oozing from wounds. They
also sometimes serve as vectors of eye diseases and parasites such
as pinkeye and eye worms.
Source: U. S. Department Of Agriculture
Facts Houseflies can only take in liquid foods.
The instant the fly lands on your food it secretes an enzyme called
volidrop, along with a portion of his previous meal. This it does
right on the area of the food it wants to consume. This potent mixture
liquefies the tiny spot almost immediately.
The fly then
consumes the liquid food and moves on leaving behind diseases that
can get you deathly sick. After they eat they spit it out then suck
it back in. They also throw up partially digested matter and eat
it again. The flies can walk on vertical planes, and can even hang
upside down from ceilings. This is accomplished with the surface
tension (a phenomenon at the surface of a liquid caused by intermolecular
forces) of liquids secreted by various organs that synthesize substances
needed by the body and release it through ducts or directly into
the bloodstream via glands near their feet. Lacking eyelids, the
flies continually clean their eyes with their forelegs. Most of
their taste and smell sensor cells are on hairs on their legs, and
that is why they also keep rubbing their legs together.
Source: U. S.
Department Of Agriculture
Flies (Musca domestica)
by: Steve Jacobs, Sr. Extension Associate
University of Nebraska Department of Entomology
House flies are not the neatest of insects. They visit such places
as dumps, sewers, and garbage heaps. They feed on fecal matter,
discharges from wounds and sores, sputum, and all sorts of moist
decaying matter such as spoiled fish, eggs and meat.
Economic Importance House flies are strongly suspected
of transmitting at least 65 diseases to humans, including typhoid
fever, dysentery, cholera, poliomyelitis, yaws, anthrax, tularemia,
leprosy and tuberculosis. Flies regurgitate and excrete wherever
they come to rest and thereby mechanically transmit disease organisms.
Biology House flies can be easily identified by
the four dark, longitudinal stripes on top of the thorax, or middle
body region. They vary in length from l/8-l/4 of an inch. Their
mouth parts are adapted for sponging up liquids; they cannot bite.
These flies can only ingest liquid food. They feed on attractive
solid food by regurgitating saliva on it. The saliva liquifies the
solid material which is then sponged up with the proboscis. They
require water since they are continually salivating and voiding
liquids. Fly specks seen on many surfaces visited by house flies
are the excreted wastes.
The eggs are deposited in decaying matter such as grass clippings,
garbage, human and animal excrement. Horse manure is the preferred
breeding medium. About l00-l50 eggs are deposited by each female
on appropriate food. Eggs may hatch in 7 l/2 hours when temperatures
are high (about 99× F), or it may take two days if the temperature
is only 59×F. Eggs hatch into worm-like creatures called maggots
(Fig. 1b). Maggots lack definite heads, eyes, antennae or legs.
Their bodies are pointed at their front end and gradually widen
at the rear. They feed on the material in which they find themselves.
There are three larval molts. Mature larvae stop feeding and burrow
for protection in drier surrounding areas, where they pupate. The
pupa is a chestnut brown, oval object within which the larva changes
into an adult house fly. Adults mate within one to two days after
emerging from their pupal cases. The life cycle, from egg to adult,
may take as little as one week, but normally requires three weeks
for completion. House flies normally live about 2 l/2 weeks during
the summer, but they can, at lower temperatures, survive up to three
months. Some overwinter outdoors in protected locations, or in crevices
in buildings. Flies normally stay within l/2-2 miles of their point
of origin, but have been known to travel as far as 20 miles to find
food and ovipositional sites.